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3. ANNEXES


Glossary

Aerobic exercise: Exercise requiring oxygen that especially strengthens the cardiovascular system;
contrasts with anaerobic exercise focusing on muscle strength
Acute myocardial infarction: A “heart attack”. Damages the tissue of the myocardium by interrupting blood flow to this area, usually caused by atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries
Angina pectoris: Sporadic pain in the chest often radiating to the arms, especially the left arm, sometimes accompanied by a feeling of suffocation and impending death; most often caused by ischaemia of the myocardium and precipitated by effort or excitement (stable) or while resting (unstable); often called angina
Antiplatelet drug: A substance that inhibits or destroys blood platelets, which have a role in blood clotting; administered for prophylaxis or treatment of thromboembolic disorders
Aortic stenosis: Narrowing of the orifice of the aortic valve or of the supravalvular or subvalvular regions
Apnoea: Cessation of breathing or asphyxia
Arrhythmia: Variation from the normal rhythm of the heartbeat
Arteriosclerosis: A group of diseases characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls
Atherosclerosis: A form of arteriosclerosis in which deposits of yellow plaques are deposited within arteries
Body mass index: (Weight in kg)/(height in cm)2; normal values are between 20 and 25, 25–30 is overweight and over 30 is obese
Carbon monoxide measurement: Measuring the concentration of carbon monoxide in expired air; used as feedback to show smokers attempting to quit the benefits of quitting.
Capillaries: Minute blood vessels
Capillary response: Rate at which capillaries fill with blood after induced pressure is released
Cardiovascular: Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
Coronary artery: An artery that supplies the heart muscle
Congestive heart failure: A clinical syndrome due to heart disease, characterized by breathlessness and abnormal sodium and water retention, often resulting in oedema
Coronary artery bypass grafting: A section of vein or other conduit grafted between the aorta and a coronary artery distal to an obstructive lesion in the coronary artery
Coronary heart disease: See ischaemic heart disease
Diuretic: An agent that increases the excretion of urine
Dyspnoea: Difficulty in breathing
Ejection fraction: The percentage of blood driven out into the vascular system during systole (normal values 55–70%)
Endocarditis: Inflammatory alterations of the endothelial lining membrane of the cavities of the heart and the connective tissue bed on which it lies
Fibrillation, atrial: Arrhythmia characterized by minute areas of the atrial myocardium being in various uncoordinated stages of depolarization and repolarization due to multiple re-entry circuits within the atrial myocardium
Fibrillation, ventricular: Arrhythmia characterized by fibrillary contractions of the ventricular muscle due to rapid repetitive excitation of fibres of the myocardium without coordinated contraction of the ventricle
Hb A1c: Glycosylated haemoglobin A, a marker for poorly controlled diabetes
High-density lipoprotein: A class of lipoproteins that promotes transport of cholesterol from extrahepatic tissue to the liver for excretion in the bile
Hypercholesterolaemia: Abnormally increased concentration of serum cholesterol
Hyperglycaemia: Abnormally increased concentration of blood glucose
Hypertension, arterial: Elevated blood pressure, often defined as exceeding 140/90 mmHg
Hypertriglyceridaemia: Abnormally increased concentration of serum triglycerides
Hypoglycaemia: Abnormally diminished concentration of blood glucose, which may lead to tremulousness, cold sweat, hypothermia and other symptoms
Impaired fasting glycaemia: Fasting glucose concentration exceeding normal but below that of diabetes mellitus (6.1–7.0 mmol/l): risk factor or risk marker for type 2 diabetes
Impaired glucose tolerance: Elevated plasma glucose two hours after an oral glucose tolerance test; risk factor or risk marker for type 2 diabetes and may be more strongly associated with cardiovascular outcomes than impaired fasting glycaemia
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator: An implantable device that detects sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation and terminates it by a shock or shocks delivered directly to the myocardium
Intermittent claudication: Pain in the legs on exertion caused by occlusive arterial diseases of the limbs.
Ischaemia: Deficiency of blood in a part, usually due to functional constriction or actual obstruction of a blood vessel
Ischaemic (coronary) heart disease: Insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart, usually due to functional constriction or actual obstruction of a blood vessel such as that caused by atherosclerosis or by increased oxygen demand or diminished blood oxygen transport
Low-density lipoprotein: A class of lipoproteins responsible for transporting cholesterol to extrahepatic tissues
Macrovascular: Pertaining to large blood vessels
Microalbuminuria: Excretion of albumin in the urine of 30–300 mg per day, often seen with the elevation in the glomerular filtration rate of diabetes mellitus
Microvascular: Pertaining to small blood vessels, including capillaries
Myocarditis: Inflammation of the myocardium
Myocardium: The middle and thickest layer of the heart wall, composed of cardiac muscle
Nephropathy, diabetic: Disease of the kidneys that commonly accompanies later stages of diabetes mellitus
Neuropathy, autonomic: A functional disturbance or pathological change in the autonomic nervous system; here, it results from diabetes mellitus
Neuropathy, peripheral: A functional disturbance or pathological change in the peripheral nervous system; here, it results from diabetes mellitus
New York Heart Association classes I to IV: Classes of symptoms of congestive heart failure from I (no symptoms) to IV (symptoms at rest)
Nicotine replacement therapy: Supplying nicotine delivered through various means to smokers attempting to quit to reduce their abstinence symptoms
Nitroglycerin: Used in the prophylaxis and treatment of angina pectoris, administered sublingually
Oedema: The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body
Oral glucose tolerance test: Administration of a standard amount of glucose to a fasting person to test glucose tolerance
Palpitation: A subjective sensation of an unduly rapid or irregular heartbeat
Paraclinical: Pertaining to abnormalities, such as biochemical ones or underlying clinical manifestations, such as chest pain or fever
Patient with a high risk of heart disease: In the comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation programme, a person with three or more of the classical risk factors for ischaemic heart disease.
Percutaneous coronary intervention: Minimally invasive mechanical expansion of a constricted heart vessel with a catheter that is introduced through a large blood vessel, usually the groin or underarm
Pericarditis: Inflammation of the fibroserous sac that surrounds the heart
Prophylaxis: Treatment to prevent disease
Retinopathy: Inflammation of the retina often seen in late diabetes mellitus
Risk factor: A factor that is known to be associated with an increased incidence or prevalence of a specific disease
Saturated fatty acids: Fatty acids without double bonds in their chains
Statin: A class of pharmaceuticals used to lower serum cholesterol
Symptom-limited: Limited by the patient’s symptoms: for example, an exercise test that is stopped if the patient develops symptoms
Syncope (cardiac): Sudden fainting due to obstructions in cardiac output or arrhythmia
Tachycardia: Excessive rapidity in the action of the heart
Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with thrombus formation
Thrombus: An aggregation of blood factors frequently causing vascular obstruction at the point of its formation
Trans-fatty acids: Polyunsaturated fatty acids that have been hydrogenated (hardened); strongly linked to heart disease
Triglycerides: Fat synthesized from carbohydrate for storage in adipose cells
Vascular region: The part of the vascular system, including capillaries, supplying a tissue


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© Cardiac Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiology Y, H:S Bispebjerg Hospital